HISTORY OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION, ITS IMPORTANCE AND APPLICABILITY PRACTICE
The history of Physical Education is related to all science that studies the past and present of human activities , and their evolutions. Man has as an objective to investigate and monitor the development of physical activities whether they are progressing or not, which change according to the political, social, economic or scientific systems of the population. Since the dawn of civilization man practicing va physical activity part of their survival and everyday, swimming, hunting, fighting, running, jumping, throwing, throwing etc. The most remote origins in history speak of 3000 BC in China, where the Emperor, Hoang Ti, recommended to his warriors and the population that they should exercise for hygienic and therapeutic purposes, in addition to training for war. Already at the beginning of the first millennium, in India, physical exercises were regarded as a doctrine because of the "laws of Manu," a kind of civil, political, social and religious code. They were, therefore, indispensable to military needs beyond the physiological character.Buddha attributed the exercises , the path of physical energy, the purity of feeling, goodness and knowledge of the sciences to the supreme happiness of Nirvana. The Yoga has its origins at the same time portraying the gymnastic exercises in the book "Yajur Veda" that besides a deepening of the Medicine, it taught postural techniques of breathing. Parallel to the Chinese and Indian period Japanese civilization also developed studies on physical activity, mainly linked to the training of us warriors, the samurai. Adding to these eastern civilizations Egypt, he had also developed his studies of sports and physical activity linked to war. The beginning of the development of sports and Physical Education studies as we know it today is linked to Western and Eastern civilizations old. Greece, no doubt, went to the civilization that most marked the beginning of this science.Philosophers such as Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, and Hippocrates have contributed much to Physical Education, assigning concepts to date accepted in the connection body and soul through bodily activities. The methodological and group systems, as well as the terms dumbbells, athlete, gymnastics, pentathlon etc. are a Greek heritage. Social and physical activities were a practice until old age practiced in stages intended for this. Rome, in turn, inherits all the cultural characteristics of Greece, including sports practices, but its main focus in the Empire is the development of soldiers for war. In the Middle Ages with the fall of the empire ro mano Physical Education is set aside, especially with the rise of Christianity that has lasted throughout this era. The cult of the body was a mortal sin, and military activities were reserved only for the servants. The Renaissance period again exploded the physical culture, the arts, music, science and literature. The beauty of the body, once sinful, is again exploited by great artists such as Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519), responsible for the creation used until today of the proportional rules of the human body. This period includes the study of the anatomy and sculpture of famous statues, such as that of David, sculpted by Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475-1564). The dissection of human corpses gave birth to Anatomy as the classic work "De Humani Corporis Fábrica" by Andrea Vesalius (1514-1564). The return of the Physical Education school is also due in this period to Vittorio de Feltre (1378-1466) who in 1423 founded the school "La Casa Giocosa" where the program content included physical exercises. Later in the Enlightenment all these concepts are taken up and added by their new theorists. Rousseau (1712-1778) proposes Physical Education as a fundamental requirement for child development, that is, as early as the eighteenth century there were foci of studies on psycho-motor.C omeça to develop in the Contemporary Age the term "gymnastics" and four major schools were responsible for this: the German, Nordic, the French and the English. The German, influenced by Rousseau and Pestalozzi, had as a highlight Johann Christoph Friederick Guts Muths (1759-1839) considered the father of modern pedagogical gymnastics. Friederick Ludwig Jahn (1788-1825) creates at this time a gymnastics that gave rise to Olympic gymnastics. Adolph Spiess (1810-1858) definitively introduces Physical Education in German schools, being even one of the first defenders of feminine gymnastics . Already Nordic school writes its history through Nachtegall (1777-1847) who founded its own gymnasium (1799) and the Civil Gymnastics Institute for the training of teachers of Physical Education (1808). The French school had as main element the naturalized Spanish Francisco Amoros Y Ondeano (1770-1848). The English school was based on the games and the sports, having as main defender Thomas Arnold (1795-1842) although it was not the creator. This school also still had the influence of Clias in the military training. The Physical Education in Brazil had great influence of the Gymnastic Gymnastics created in 1829 in France by Phoktion Heinrich Clias (1782-1854). Calisthenics, according to Marinho (1980), comes from the Greek Kallos (beautiful), Sthenos (force) and the suffix "ia". From Swedish gymnastics it presents a division of eight groups of exercises located associating music to the rhythm of exercises that are done by free hand using small accessories for corrective, physiological and pedagogic purposes. Those responsible for setting this method were Dr. Dio Lewis and the Christian Youth Association (ACM) with an initial proposal to improve the physical fitness of the Americans who needed it most. In Brazil, in the 60's began to be implanted in the few academies by the teachers of the ACM gaining more and more followers in the 70s always with innovations based on science. Already in the decade of 80 aerobic gymnastics invades the academies of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. From the republic, in Brazil, the professionalization of Physical Education begins . AND until the 60's this was restricted to specific organizational and administrative structures such as: Physical Education Division and the National Sports Council. The 1970s were marked by the military dictatorship, Physical Education was used, not for educational purposes, but for government propaganda being all branches and levels of education geared toward high-performance sports . In the 80's Physical Education is experiencing an existential crisis in search of purposes aimed at society. In the 1990s the sport came to be seen as a means of promoting health accessible to all manifested in three ways: sports education, sports participation and sport performance. Physical Education finally regulated is in fact and by law a profession which is responsible for mediating and conducting the whole process. The steps of the profession: 1946 - The Brazilian Federation of Physical Education Teachers was founded. 1950 to 1979 - She was a little forgetful with few and fruitless movements. 1984 - Presented 1st bill to regulate the profession. 1998 - Finally on September 1 signed Law No. 9. 696 regulating the profession with all the social advances resulting from many grassroots discussions and interested segments.
THE IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION
The regular practice of physical activity has always been linked to the image of healthy people. In the past, there were two ideas that tried to explain the association between exercise and health: the former argued that some individuals had a genetic predisposition to the practice of physical exercise, since they had good health, physical fitness and mental disposition, the other proposal said that physical activity, in fact, represented an environmental stimulus responsible for the absence of disease, mental health, and good physical fitness. Nowadays it is known that the two concepts are important and are related. The regular practice of physical exercises is accompanied by benefits that manifest themselves in all aspects of the body. From the musculoskeletal point of view, it helps in improving strength and muscle tone and flexibility, strengthening bones and joints. In the case of children, it can help in the development of psychomotor skills. Regarding physical health, we observed weight loss and percentage of body fat, reduction of resting blood pressure, improvement of diabetes, decrease in total cholesterol and increase in HDL-cholesterol (the "good cholesterol"). All these benefits help in the prevention and control of diseases, being important for the reduction of the mortality associated to them. See the person who stops being sedentary and becomes a little more active reduces the risk of death from heart disease by 40%! This shows that a small change in life habits is capable of causing a great improvement in health and quality of life. In mental health, exercise helps regulate nervous system-related substances, improves blood flow to the brain, helps with coping with stress, and coping with stress. In addition, it also assists in maintaining drug withdrawal and restoring self-esteem. There is reduction of anxiety and stress, helping in the treatment of depression. Physical activity can also exert effects on the social interaction of the individual, both in the work environment and in the family. Physical activity consists of well-planned and well-structured, repetitive exercises. They confer benefits to practitioners and have their risks minimized through proper guidance and control. These regular exercises increase longevity, improve energy level, mood, and overall health. It positively affects the intellectual performance, the reasoning, the speed of reaction, the social coexistence.
I believe that the dichotomy between theory and practice can be overcome and advocate greater links between the university s s s s colleges and the school, assuming that the pedagogical work in the school possesses knowledge that is their own and should be valued and not ignored as happens in the traditional perspective. It is important to note the progress of this experience in articulation between institutions. In your organization, I The teacher's knowledge of cola was valued.
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FREIRE, John the Baptist. Full-Body Education : Theory and Practice of Education Physics, São Paulo, Scipione. 1989.
KUNZ, Elenor - Physical Education: teaching & change / Ijuí: Unijuí, Publisher, 1991
KUNZ, Elenor - Didactic - pedagogical Transformation of Sport. Ijuí - RS,Unijuí Editora, 2004.
Teacher : Leonires Barbosa Gomes CREF / DF 979GSpecialist Educ the School Physical
Enviado por Léo Bargom em 02/05/2019
Alterado em 02/05/2019
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